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Universal Dependencies - English - GUM

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AnnotationPeng, Siyao;Zeldes, Amir

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s-1 Design of Mutation Operators for Testing Geographic Information Systems
s-2 Suilen H. Alvarado Laboratorio de Bases de Datos Campus de Elviña, Centro de investigación CITIC, Universidade da Coruña, 15071 A Coruña, Spain;
s-3 Presented at the 2nd XoveTIC Congress, A Coruña, Spain, 56 September 2019.
s-4 Abstract:
s-5 In this article, we propose the definition of specific mutation operators for testing Geographic Information Systems.
s-6 We describe the process for applying the operators and generating mutants, and present a case study where these mutation operators are applied to two real-world applications.
s-7 Keywords: mutation operators; geographic information systems; mutation testing
s-8 1. Introduction
s-9 Mutation-based testing [1] is a test technique that involves artificially introducing errors into a System Under Test (SUT).
s-10 A mutant is a copy of the system in which a change has been done that, in most cases, will lead to a behaviour different than expected.
s-11 The different mutants are generated automatically by the application of mutation operators.
s-12 In the state of the art, we have found mutation operators, both general purpose and specific to different technologies, languages and paradigms [29].
s-13 However, these operators are not adequate when trying to test software features associated with specific domains.
s-14 In this article, we propose mutation operators specific to the domain of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications.
s-15 These operators reproduce programming errors that are litely to occur during the development of this type of applications.
s-16 In addition, we present the implementation of these operators and as proof of concept we apply these operators to two real-world GIS applications and we generate the mutants.
s-17 2. Mutation Operators for GIS
s-18 As a previous step to designing the mutation operators, we analyzed the main technologies used specifically in the development of GIS, and we identified typical errors a programmer can introduce during the development.
s-19 These errors were formalized into mutation operators.
s-20 In order to apply these operators to a SUT, we rely on Java reflection and aspect-oriented programming.
s-21 Reflection allows us to obtain the list of classes and methods of the SUT, so the user can decide the methods to wish the operators will be applied.
s-22 Later, we capture information about the methods of the SUT to be mutated, together with the information of the mutation operators that were already defined.
s-23 From these data, we generate the mutation operator, in the form of on aspect, which will then be possible to interweave with the SUT which generates a mutant of the SUT.
s-24 Next, we describe the definition of two operators and two cases of application on real-world GIS applications.
s-25 ChangeCoordSys Operator (Listing 1):
s-26 It exchanges the coordinate system of a geometry, so it does not match the coordinate system that is being used in the user interface.
s-27 It simulates the error of not checking that the coordinate system is correct.
s-28 The error is introduced by directly modifying the coordinate system of geometry when recovering the wrapping of the figure.
s-29 Listing 1: A simplified definition of the ChangeCoordSys Operator.
s-30 This operator was applied to a mobile technology GIS application.
s-31 This application allows registering places of interest for the user.
s-32 These areas of interest are called Geofences.
s-33 A Geofence is determined by a geographical location expressed in terms of latitude, longitude, and a radius around that location.
s-34 By creating a Geofence with an erroneous location from its central location, the device will receive incorrect location notifications.
s-35 As a result, the user will see in the application’s map viewer the Geofences drawn in erroneous zones (Figure 1).
s-36 Figure 1. Original and mutant application.
s-37 BooleanPolygonConstraint Operator (Listing 2):
s-38 It introduces errors in the processing of geometries, manipulating the result of the operations that carry out the verification of different topological restrictions between geometries, such as intersects, covers or overlap.
s-39 Listing 2: A simplified definition of the BooleanPolygonConstraint Operator.
s-40 To test this operator it was applied to a land reparcelling system.
s-41 The objective of the land reparcelling is to reunify the lands of an owner to facilitate their exploitation.
s-42 In this application, the result of the operation between two polygons has been affected.
s-43 This error causes the incorrect display of the resulting geometry that should be drawn in the user interface after the operation applied to the two initial geometries (Figure 2).
s-44 Figure 2. Original and mutant application.
s-45 3. Conclusions
s-46 In existing proposals, we can find both generic and specific mutation operators.
s-47 However, these are not adequate to cover errors in particular domains.
s-48 We have defined new operators specific to the GIS domain and a way to apply them to a SUT.
s-49 In addition, we have tested the operators defined in two GIS applications.
s-50 As future work, we intend to extend this approach to other domains, as well as to use the developed operators for the automatic improvement of sets of test cases.

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